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Restriction of dietary protein and use of proteins high in branched chain amino acids are accepted to be beneficial in the management of hepatic encephalopathy. This study was designed to determine the effects of dietary protein concentration and amino acid content on the development of HE in dogs after the creation of portosystemic shunt (PSS). Additionally, the study was designed to determine if apparent dietary protein requirements differ in dogs after PSS. A little understood, common side effect of PSS, microcytosis, was also studied.
Thirty-two healthy adult dogs were used in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial study conducted in 2 phases. Eight dogs were assigned to each of 4 diets containing either high (HI) or low (LO) crude protein supplemented by either branched chain (BC) or aromatic (AA) amino acids.
Hepatic failure was induced by the surgical creation of complete portosystemic shunts and was confirmed by increases in plasma fasting ammonia and BSP retention, and by hepatic atrophy. Changes in serum biochemical parameters were typical of values reported by others in dogs with naturally occurring or surgically induced PSS.
Six of 7 dogs fed the HI-BC diet lost weight and developed HE 5 to 12 weeks after surgery. Dogs fed the LO-BC and HI-AA diets tended to maintain body weight and normal mental status. There appeared to be a beneficial effect in preventing HE in PSS dogs from these 2 diets that was not explained by the protein concentration nor the amino acid content of the diets.
The apparent dietary protein requirement, as determined by the amount of dietary protein nitrogen necessary to maintain nitrogen balance, was not affected by PSS. Across all diets tested, dogs required approximately 2.10 g crude protein per kilogram of body weight per day before and 8 weeks after PSS.
Microcytosis was induced by PSS in 12 of 14 dogs studied. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin decreased significantly within 2 weeks following PSS. Serum copper, iron, and total iron binding capacity were decreased, but liver iron was increased twofold in PSS dogs. Abnormal iron metabolism associated with microcytosis occurs in PSS dogs.
The subject of this writing concerns the underutilization of Louisville Division of Police canine teams by the department’s rank and file officers. Six hypotheses statements were developed to test four variables. The variables are: officers’ attitudes toward canines and canine teams; officers’ knowledge of the capabilities of the canine teams; biographical characteristics of the officers; and officers’ usage of canine teams. Data were gathered through the distribution of 640 surveys to all sworn officers within the Louisville Division of Police. Four hundred and eight surveys were returned and used as a data set for the analysis.
The following topics are discussed in the literature review: The history of the use of dogs in law enforcement and during wartime, the dog’s unique characteristics which enable the dog to perform some police related tasks and the advantages and disadvantages of having a canine unit. The implementation of a canine unit and the trained police dogs capabilities are reviewed. A brief history of the Louisville Division of Police Canine Unit is given, and examples of canine teams’ capabilities are provided.
Most dog owners agree it is important to have local dog parks where they can bring their pets to get some fresh air and some space to roam, and it doesn’t hurt to meet other neighborly dog owners while you’re there.
Cedar Park, Texas, has opened a new dog park called Cedar Bark Park, which is inside Veterans Memorial Park, located at 2525 West New Hope Drive. This dog park includes 5 acres of space for your pooch to run and a pier that leads to a dogs-only pond. Cedar Bark Park is totally fenced in. It offers one section for small dogs and two for large dogs, as well as doggie showers and drinking bowls. If you’re looking to move close to one of these parks try this site about Cedar Park homes for sale and take a look around at the properties they have listed.
Luckily, Austin has a few more options. Barton Creek Greenbelt Preserve, located at 3755 B Capital of Texas Highway, allows dogs, but they must be leashed. The Preserve provides about 7 miles of trails for mountain biking, hiking and walking. The creek has several swimming holes as well. You can access the trails through Loop 360 or Zilker Metropolitan Park.
Bull Creek District Dog Park, located at 6701 Lakewood Drive, isn’t fenced off but does have creek access for those pups who love the water. As long as your dog is within sight and responds to verbal commands, he can be off-leash in the area behind the restrooms.
If you’re looking for a fully fenced dog park, try Norwood Estate Dog Park at I-35 and Riverside Drive. As long as your pooches are well-behaved, within sight and respond to your commands, they can play off-leash at Norwood Estate. The doggie part of the park is at the north end of Travis Heights and the northwest corner of Riverside Drive and I-35.
For a whole park that is leash-free, check out Red Bud Isle at 3401 Red Bud Trail Unit Circle. The park is basically a peninsula surrounded by Town Lake, and it’s a great place for dogs who love the water. The dog park is at the entry point for Red Bud Trail, just below Tom Miller Dam.
Shoal Creek Greenbelt, at 2600-2799 Lamar Boulevard, has a no-leash zone in a portion of its trail, from 24th to 29th Streets, and many dog owners love this area. The remainder of the 3-mile trail goes from Town Lake to 38th Street and is lined with trees and green space.
Zilker Dog Park is located at 2100 Barton Springs Road within Zilker Metropolitan Park. It is not fenced, but if your dog is well-behaved, he can play off the leash as long as you are keeping a close eye on him.
This ethnographic study explores the phenomenon of citizen participation in the decision-making process of their local government. The researcher explored this topic by observing the Dog Park Master Plan process conducted by theParks and Recreation Department of the City and County of Denver from June 2009 through April 2011.
The researcher attended and observed seven meetings of a citizens committee convened by the Denver Parks and Recreation Department to act as a mini-public to test the elements of the Dog Park Master Plan before presenting the Plan to the public, and the three public meetings held to allow the public at large to comment on the Plan. The researcher conducted interviews with citizens and city staff involved in the process. The researcher collected and analyzed textual artifacts generated in the process or related to it. Using these data sources the researcher constructed a narrative ethnography describing the Dog Park Master Plan process.
In the chapter on the academic literature, the research explores the literature on democracy, public participation, and having voice in decision making, and uses it to explain what occurred in the process. The researcher concentrates on the practical applications of the ideals of democracy and public participation, and democratic participation as envisioned in the concept of having voice put forth by Cheney and Senecah. The researcher also explores as part of having voice in decision-making the principles of representation arising from culture and communication and political theory, as well as procedural justice.
From his observations the researcher has concluded that the Dog Park Master Plan process unfolded as a process in which the Denver Parks and Recreation Department saw themselves as the experts on the matter, and so, conducted the process in such a way that the participation of the citizen committee and the public at large was to a large extent ignored. As would be predicted by the literature on public participation and procedural justice, this led to dissatisfaction with the process by the participants in it. The dissatisfaction with the process led a powerful interest group to intervene in the approval and adoption process on the Plan through opaque methods to short circuit the process and prevent many of the Plan elements coming out of the process being included in the final Plan.
The adaptive function of yawning is unclear, but yawning may serve a communicative purpose. Previous studies have suggested that contagious yawning is linked to empathy, and perhaps observed only in species with complex cognitive functioning.
Whether domestic dogs can exhibit yawn contagion in response to human yawns is debated. We investigated whether dogs’ susceptibility to yawning in response to a human is associated with their sensitivity to understanding human social cues. Shelter dogs were tested in yawn contagion trials and on the object choice task to determine if there is a link between their social cognitive capacities and contagious yawning. Salivary cortisol samples were taken to determine if yawning was the result of arousal rather than true contagion. Twenty-nine percent of the overall sample yawned more in the yawning trial than the control trial, which is consistent with more recent studies on yawn contagion in dogs.
Yawning was not related to dogs’ performance on the object choice task, but cortisol levels were associated with contagious yawning. Specifically, dogs that did exhibit yawn contagion had higher cortisol levels following the yawning trials, suggesting that these dogs were more physiologically aroused than dogs that did not yawn contagiously. Further, dogs that received the yawning condition first tended to have higher cortisol levels than dogs that received the control condition first.
These dogs also tended to yawn more in the yawning condition than the control, showing nearly significant levels of yawn contagion as a group. Given the trial order effects observed, human yawning may produce physiological arousal in some dogs, which results in contagious-like yawning in these dogs. Our findings suggest that contagious yawning in dogs may operate on some other mechanism than it does in more cognitively complex species. The arousal explanation supports the hypothesis that the underlying physiological and communicative function of yawning is to increase alertness and vigilance in the yawner and conspecifics and may imply interspecies communication, though the role of empathy is unclear.
Every day she goes to the Dog Park, where she sees her friends and finds out what’s up. They chase balls and each other. They wrestle and play tug. They sniff butt. They enjoy being dogs.
An opinionated (and sometimes snotty) beagle visits her local dog park every day and records what happened — who was there, what they did, what they said or thought, how they got along with the other dogs, what games they played, how often they peed, and especially what they smelled.
Goody Beagle brought her human with her to write it all down, and invited a photographer to come along too, to capture the dogs of the dog park in pictures. It’s a doggy soap opera come to life! If you have a dog and visit your local dog park, you will recognize the inter-canine dynamics on every page.
If you don’t have a dog, you still might go to the dog park just so you can experience the drama of what goes on there.
Dog Park Diary: the Social Round of Goody Beagle will make you laugh — and you’ll never smell things in the same way again.